Loan schedule While at LSU in the late 60's, I had to take a course in Engineering Economy. Because major projects taking years to complete are bought and paid for over time, this class was required for the day the engineer got promoted into management and needed to be able to calculate the cost of a loan (bond) or how much to save each month so a specific amount would be ready at a designated future time. Although I never became an engineer, knowing these formulae and how they are derived has been very useful in both my career and personal life.
Goes Into Not needed a much now but at one time you could find out the balance only of a checking account and just take a guess as to which checks have cleared, i.e., you wrote about $800 in checks but only about $500 have been cashed. After you tell this page the $500 amount along with the list of check amounts (and count of checks for the same amount if any), it will run all combinations of cashed and uncashed checks and tell you which combination came closest to your target sum ($500 in this case). The page has an example to show how this works.
Federal 2017 withholding schedule From Publication
15, Circular E, Employer's Tax Guide from the IRS, this page shows what should be withheld for married/single, number exemptions, salary, and pay period. It extrapolates the salary into an annual amount, calculates withholding based on the annual schedule, and divides back into the number of pay periods per year. Previous years are provided for reference.